Friday, December 10, 2004

Case Study based on Incident of Sexual Abuse in Orthodox Jewish Community

4 Comments:

At 7:26 AM, Blogger jewishwhistleblower said...

From the Awareness Center Yahoogroup http://www.theawarenesscenter.org/networkinggroups.html
(where we will be liberating materials from time to time).

Child Abuse and Neglect
Vol: 28 Issue: 3, March, 2004
pp: 253-265

The social marketing approach: a way to increase reporting and
treatment of sexual assault
Amnon Boehma*, , Haya Itzhakyb
a. School of Social Work, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa
31905, Israel
b. Department of Society and Welfare, School of Social Work, Bar-Ilan
University, Ramat Gan , Israel
Received 31 December 2002; revised 21 August 2003; accepted 27
September 2003
Abstract
Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases
of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to
report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept
treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application
of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for
motivating communities to report and victims to seek professional
treatment.

Methods: The paper is based on a case study of an ultra-orthodox
Jewish community in Israel, where an informal campaign of silence
developed. Using content analysis of documents and in-depth
interviews, the research examines the implementation of a social
marketing approach by a multidisciplinary team of professionals in
the community. It focuses on developments in the community´s attitude
to sexual abuse, especially with regard to reporting assault and
seeking and accepting treatment.

Results: The findings show a considerable reduction in the fear that
victims and other members of the community felt with regard to
exposing the issue; a change among the community leaders, some of
whom initially objected to reporting and treatment; introduction of
an alternative community dialogue that advocated reporting and
treatment; and a rise in the number of reports and of people in
treatment.

Conclusion: The paper recommends the integration of principles of
social marketing in community programs aimed at dealing with sexual
assault. In particular, it suggests the identification of competing
groups in the community, construction of specific programs for
different segments, addressing the no-monetary prices that the change
may incur on the different groups, location of appropriate places for
distribution of messages, and use of effective personal, as well as
public means of communication and promotion.

Abstract
Objectif: Trop souvent, les collectivités ne réagissent pas devant
les agressions sexuelles envers les enfants. Les membres de ces
collectivités ont peur de signaler ces incidents et les victimes
craignent de chercher un traitement puis de se faire traiter. Cet
article a pour but de considérer si le marketing social est un outil
valable pour motiver les collectivités à signaler les cas de
maltraitance et encourager les victimes à se faire traiter.

Méthode: L´article est axé sur une étude de cas dans une communauté
juive très orthodoxe en Israël où se développa une campagne
informelle de silence. En menant une analyse de documents et des
entrevues approfondies, les chercheurs ont étudié la mise en
exécution d´un marketing social qu´une équipe multidisciplinaire de
professionnels a entrepris au sein de la collectivité en question.
Ils se sont penchés sur le développement d´attitudes vis-à-vis de la
problématique des abus sexuels, surtout sur le signalement et la
recherche d´un traitement.

Résultats: Les chercheurs ont noté plusieurs constats suite aux
activités de marketing: les victimes et les membres de la
collectivitéétaient beaucoup moins méfiants d´exposer la
problématique; les chefs de file de la collectivité avaient changé
leurs attitudes, dont certains qui s´étaient objectés initialement au
signalement et au traitement; l´introduction d´un dialogue dans la
collectivité qui prônait le signalement et le traitement; puis une
augmentation des signalements et des personnes recevant un traitement.

Conclusions: L´article recommande que les principes du marketing
social soient inclus dans les programmes communautaires orientés vers
les agressions sexuelles. En particulier, il propose que la
collectivité identifie les groupes rivaux, qu´on élabore des
programmes propres aux différents segments de la société, qu´on
reconnaisse les coûts non financiers que ces changements pourraient
occasionner pour ces différents groupes, qu´on identifie des
occasions propices pour faire passer les messages de marketing et
qu´on ait recours à des moyens efficaces de communication et de
promotion personnels et publics.

Abstract
Objetivo: A menudo, la sociedad permanece en silencio como respuesta
a los casos de agresiones sexuales a menores Los miembros de la
sociedad suelen ser temerosos de notificar tales incidentes y las
víctimas suelen evitar el buscar y aceptar tratamiento. El propósito
de este artículo es examinar si la aplicación de una aproximación de
marketing social puede servir como un medio efectivo de motivar a la
sociedad para notificar y a las víctimas de buscar tratamiento
profesional.

Método: El artículo está basado en el estudio de un caso de una
comunidad judía ultra-ortodoxa de Israel, donde se desarrolla una
campaña informal de silencio. La investigación analiza la
implantación en la comunidad de un programa de marketing social por
parte de un equipo multidisciplinar de profesionales. Se utilizaron
análisis de contenido de documentos y entrevistas en profundidad. El
estudio se centró en el desarrollo de actitudes comunitarias hacia el
abuso sexual, especialmente en las relacionadas con la notificación
de casos de abuso sexual y con la aceptación de tratamientos.

Resultados: Los hallazgos muestran (1) una considerable reducción del
miedo que las víctimas y otros miembros de la comunidad sienten con
respecto a exponer estas cuestiones, (2) un cambio entre los líderes
de la comunidad, algunos de los cuales se negaban previamente a
notificar y aceptar el tratamiento, (3) la introducción de un sistema
de diálogo alternativo que apoya la notificación y el tratamiento y
(4) un aumento en el número de notificaciones y de las personas en
tratamiento.

Conclusiones: El artículo presenta recomendaciones para integrar los
principios del marketing social en los programas sociales que tienen
como objetivo el trabajo con situaciones de abuso sexual. En
particular, sugiere la identificación de grupos competentes en la
comunidad, la construcción de programas específicos para diferentes
segmentos de la comunidad, la evaluación del coste que el cambio
puede producir en los diferentes grupos, la localización de lugares
apropiados para la distribución de los mensajes y la utilización de
medios públicos y personales efectivos de comunicación y promoción.


Keywords: Social marketing; Community intervention; Child abuse;
Sexual assault and Silencing.
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Article Outline
1. Introduction
2. Method

a. Data collection
3. Case description

a. Background
b. The marketing strategy
i. Developing a community marketing strategy team
ii. Developing an informal campaign
iii. Segmentation
iv. General strategy
v. The social product
vi. Place
vii. Price
viii. Means of promotion
c. Process and results
4. Discussion

a. Interdisciplinary teamwork and resident participation
b. Customizing the intervention program for different groups
c. Recognition of price
d. Facing competition
e. Gradual transition
References


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1. Introduction
One of the goals of professionals who deal with sexual assault of
children is to persuade victims, their families, and members of the
community as a whole to report incidents and to help victims, as well
as assailants, obtain treatment ( Bernard, 2002, Green, 2001,
Hoult, 1998, Miller, 1991, Smith et al., 2000 ; Williams et al.,
2002 ). This is particularly difficult in the case of sexual assault
because of the concern among victims, their families, the assailants,
and the community as a whole that such exposure will lead to
the "mark of shame" often associated with involvement in such an
incident ( Feiring et al., 2002 ; Ghetti et al., 2002 ; Kellogg &
Hoffman, 1997, Roseler & Wind, 1994, Ulman, 1996 ). The assailants´
apprehension about disclosure of their offences, and the concern of
community members and leaders regarding the community image, often
lead to an informal communication campaign to silence any discussion
of the subject ( Dadia, 2002, Itzhaky & York, 2001 ). Many
communities employ cultural and religious patterns and codes to
defend this conspiracy of silence ( Alaggia, 2001, Farrell & Taylor,
2000, Smith, 1994 ), and social-cultural networks have also been
found to be significant factors in coping with the abusers and the
symptoms of the abused ( Muller et al., 2000 ; Onyskiw et al.,
1999 ). In addition to the social-community aspect, silencing becomes
a personal problem for victims, impairing and preventing their
recovery ( Dadia, 2002, Donalek, 2001 ).

In light of this situation, it is of the utmost importance to find
appropriate ways to counter the informal discourse and the sense of
shame and dishonor in the community. It is especially crucial to find
means to motivate the target population to report such incidents and
seek professional treatment. Although the literature on sexual
assault usually describes this social problem and its undesirable
consequences, only few researchers have given due attention to
community approaches that deal with sexual abuse ( Barton et al.,
1997 ; Itzhaky & York, 2001, Mulroy & Shay, 1997 ).

The purpose of the present research is to examine the implementation
of the social marketing approach in dealing with a community that
silenced the reporting of sexual abuse of children. This approach has
been found suitable for generating change in cases of destructive and
negative behavior patterns ( Andreasen, 1995 ; Donovan et al.,
1999 ; Kotler & Roberto, 1989, McKenzie-Mohr, 2000, Rothschild,
2000 ). Furthermore, it touches the very heart of the community
social problem that arises in the case of sexual assault—the
emergence of informal communication networks, often accompanied by
aggressive and violent measures, which threaten the victims and
dissuade them from reporting and seeking treatment. The marketing
approach may provide victims and community members with a legitimate
framework for alternative communication channels in the community,
which actively counter the threats and facilitate reporting and
treatment.

Social marketing is an application of marketing approaches from the
business world to planning and management of social program that
concentrates on changing attitudes, and especially, changing behavior
patterns of different target groups, in order to improve the well-
being of a community and society as a whole. Social marketing
emphasizes several additional aspects: it is necessary to study the
community and target groups in depth in order to shape an optimal
program; the development of strategy begins with the clients; and the
social programs must be cost effective ( Andreasen, 1995, Andreasen,
2001, Donovan et al., 1999 ; Frederiksen, 1984, Kotler & Roberto,
1989 ). The planning process in marketing strategy includes two main
stages: segmentation of the target groups and planning a
corresponding comprehensive marketing mix. Segmentation is a process
by which more or less homogenous groups, each representing specific
needs, desires, and interests regarding change, are gathered together
and differentiated from other groups. There are three common
approaches to segmentation: (a) undifferentiated—addressing all the
target groups with the same marketing mix; (b) differentiated—
addressing several segments of the population with different
marketing mixes, where the division into subgroups (segments) is
based on variables that differentiate the needs and desires of the
different groups in the population; and (c) focalized—addressing one
segment only with a marketing mix ( Boehm, 1998, Harvey, 1999,
Sargeant, 1999 ).

The marketing mix is composed of elements, known as the four P´s:
(social) product, place, price, and promotion ( Andreasen, 1995 ;
Black et al., 2002 ; Fine, 1992, Rothschild, 2000 ; Slater et al.,
2000 ), and is based on the distinct needs and desires of different
groups in the population (market segments). In contrast to a concrete
product, a social product involves adoption of social ideas, and
particularly, adoption of desired behaviors and/or cessation of
negative behaviors (such as violence). In many cases, social
marketing is initially directed at a change in attitudes, with the
aim of later fostering change in behavior patterns. The element of
place in the marketing mix focuses on decisions about how to be
available to the target population. The price involved in adopting
the new behavior pattern may be monetary, or it may be measured in
terms of time and energy invested by the target population, as well
as confusion or anxiety that may accompany the adoption of the new
behavior patterns. Finally, the promotion of social marketing is
aimed at effective delivery of the message, in order to persuade the
target population that the intended change is justified and
worthwhile. Promotion efforts include (a) direct communication with
the target group (personal sale); (b) advertising in the mass media
(in order to reach an especially broad target group); (c) public
relations (such as distribution of posters and notices, meetings with
key figures, and special events) aimed at building a positive image
of the idea and the type of behavior recommended; and/or (d)
incentives, to render the change worthwhile to the target group, or
counterbalance the cost involved.

2. Method
This paper is based on a single case study. It describes an ultra-
orthodox Jewish community in Israel, in which a campaign of silencing
was employed to bar the discussion and exposure of incidents of
sexual assault of children. It reviews a multidisciplinary community
intervention program, based on the social marketing approach, and
discusses the results of the intervention. The authors have altered
details and suppressed information that might disclose the identity
of the community.

The case refers to a neighborhood of approximately 800 families, in
an urban town in Israel. Most of the families are large, with an
average of 4.8 children per family. The community is isolated, the
families have an average income level for Israel, and most work
outside of the town. There are elementary services in the
neighborhood, such as a neighborhood grocery store and a small
community center. A large portion of the neighborhood activity
revolves around the synagogue. The neighborhood local rabbi resides
locally and serves as the town´s formal leader. There are an active
neighborhood committee, a synagogue committee, a youth movement
committee, a culture committee, and a sanitation and building
committee. The children aged 9–17 are members of a youth movement.
Neighborhood information is conveyed on a notice board, in neighbors´
meetings, in announcements made in the synagogue, in a local
newspaper published by the neighborhood committee, and through
dissemination among residents.

a. Data collection
The data collection process lasted a year. First, the planning,
intervention, and resulting change were documented by the local
community worker and the action team that was set up to operate the
community marketing program. Second, existing material (a profile of
the community prepared a few months prior to the intervention,
minutes of committee meetings, and former intervention plans) were
studied. In addition, several in-depth interviews were held with 21
participants (five social workers, four community leaders, seven
ordinary citizens, three representatives of the victims´ families,
and two representatives of the assailants´ families) over a period of
several months. The interviews were unstructured and were conducted
by the "purposeful conversation" method ( Polkinghorne, 1989, Ronel
& Humphreys, 1999 ), in which the interviewer and the respondent
freely discuss the subject of the interview. The purpose of the
interviews was to obtain a full description of the processes of
silencing in the community, the marketing intervention (including
goals, principles of operation, and process), and its results, as
perceived by the social workers and the residents.

The content analysis included cross-checking the information derived
from different sources. The process comprised the following main
stages ( Neuman, 1994 ): preliminary reading of all the descriptive
material to get a full sense of the process that took place in the
community following the incidents of sexual abuse; rereading and
identification of separate categories of meaning related to the
different aspects of the marketing approach; association of the
different categories to one another; and integration of the insights
gained, in order to produce a consistent description of the process
that took place in the community, the planning and implementation of
the intervention, and the outcomes.

3. Case description
a. Background
A young teacher sexually assaulted three 14-year-old boys and then
threatened to hurt them if they reported the incident. A week after
the birth of his eldest son, the assailant approached the boys´
parents and told them that he had "stumbled." He claimed, contrary to
the boys´ report, that he had only petted and hugged them, and had
not touched their genitals. The assailant apologized and declared
that after the birth of his son he understood what he had done and
promised it would not happen again. The parents congratulated him on
the birth of his son and, as they put it, "were pleased that he had
returned to the straight path." A few weeks later, one of the victims
of the earlier assault attacked four 8-year-old boys (an incident of
forced oral sex). One of the boys told his parents that his neighbor
had hurt him. The parents tried to ascertain the nature of the
injury, but for a few weeks they refrained from reporting the assault
to the authorities. They asked the parents of the older boy not to
let him come near or talk to their son. However, when the incident
recurred, the parents turned to the local rabbi for advice. The rabbi
also spoke with the older boy and his parents and recommended sending
him to a school out of town. The story became known to the community
social worker by chance.

b. The marketing strategy
i. Developing a community marketing strategy team
The community worker set up an action team comprised of three social
workers—an additional community worker, an expert in sexual abuse,
and an expert employed by the welfare services to work with at-risk
teenagers. The team also included an educational psychologist, a
family therapist, and an educational counselor. It worked under
external supervision of experts in the field of sexual assault,
community practice, and social marketing. The team developed a
community marketing program for dealing with the problem.

ii. Developing an informal campaign
The team members realized that the community had developed an
informal marketing campaign to silence any mention of the issue and
prevent the involvement of professional institutions. There was clear
evidence that under the pressure of the assailants´ families, a group
of religious leaders had emerged that used informal meetings in the
community to convey messages such as "disclosure and dealing with the
issue are contrary to the religious commandments;" "exposure and
treatment of the subject will taint the reputation of assailants and
victims alike;" and "opening the subject for discussion and treatment
jeopardizes the chances of both assailants and victims to find a
marriage partner and a proper career path." In addition, the leaders
used informal meetings in the neighborhood to impose strict social
supervision and in order to maintain a constant threat that anyone
who breached the messages risked ostracism from the group and the
community. It was clear that the dissemination of these messages
exceeded the bounds of mere gossip, and constituted a concerted
effort by an effective organization of public opinion agents, aimed
at sowing fear and terror. Furthermore, as the work of the new
professional community marketing team progressed, the informal
campaign in the community seemed to intensify.

iii. Segmentation
The professional team identified several interest groups: (a) 14
additional victims, in different cases of sexual abuse over the last
3 years, all of them boys (three were also suspected of sexual
abuse), who expressed strong internal dissonance: on the one hand,
they sought relief through discussion and appropriate therapy, and on
the other hand, they wanted to silence the case, for fear of
ostracism by their peers and the community as a whole; (b) the
assailants, who expressed fear of exclusion, a need for forgiveness,
and, especially, a desire that the case be forgotten; (c) the
families of the victims, who feared that publicity and treatment of
the issue would lead to community ostracism and future difficulties
in finding marriage partners for their sons; (d) the public as a
whole, most of which was aware of the incidents, expressed a desire
for less public discourse, and wanted to avoid the involvement of
professionals, for fear that the publicity would harm the image of
the community; and (e) the officeholders in the town, particularly
the rabbis, who expressed a strong desire not "to hang our dirty
laundry outside." They were concerned about a negative image of the
religious community, especially among people in other locations.

iv. General strategy
The members of the professional team developed a strategy based on
several central decisions. The first was to employ both
differentiation and non-differentiation. Thus, the segmentation
process indicated three main groups, defined in terms of their
attitude towards reporting and treatment: (a) the undecided, who were
in conflict, and were mainly victims and their families; (b)
opponents, especially among the assailants, their families, and
several religious leaders; and (c) passive participants, who accepted
the opinion of the religious authority, and chose silence. The team
decided upon a strategy of differentiation, that is, application of
different approaches, in the first two groups—the undecided and the
opponents—as both were active and both had influence on those
affected by the problem, and an undifferentiated approach in all
three groups. The decision to apply both differentiation and non-
differentiation—contrary to focalization—was necessary in order to
penetrate various specific groups and at the same time to reach the
community as a whole.

Second, the team decided to focus on a strategy of education and
information. The aim was to impart a new set of values and norms that
advocated reporting and treatment, contrary to the values and norms
that had developed in the community over the years, which called for
silence with regard to sexual abuse. In the same spirit, the team
chose to refrain, at least at this stage of intervention, from harsh
punishment of the assailants, in order to avoid an intensified
reaction from the rival group.

Third, the team members reached the conclusion that the success of
their plan depended upon an effective persuasive alternative that
would create a clear preference over the informal activities against
a change of the patterns of silence. The question arose whether it
was desirable, similar to the existing discourse in the community, to
work together with informal agents of change, discretely, or in a
formal, public framework. Despite the great difficulty of raising the
problem for public discussion, especially in an ultra-orthodox Jewish
community, the team members decided that formality and publicity
could give the marketing system particularly strong impact. First, a
formal and open system would broadcast a higher level of authority.
Second, a formal and open system would be consistent with the message
that the team members wanted to convey—that the problem should not be
silenced and should be treated.

v. The social product
The team defined several social ideas (attitudes, perceptions, and
beliefs) that should be reinforced: (a) acknowledgment that it is
necessary and possible to prevent sexual abuse; (b) perception of
those assaulted as victims and not guilty; (c) recognition that being
a victim of sexual abuse is not a disgrace that interferes with
developing a personal career, marriage, and the like; (d) a general
view that professional therapy does not contradict Jewish religious
values but is actually consistent with them; and similarly; (e) an
understanding that reporting is like fulfilling a religious moral
duty; as well as (f) recognition that proper professional care for
victims and assailants can help and also improve a community´s image.

The team also defined several patterns of action and behavior that
should be advocated: (a) opening channels for discussion of the
subject among professional and religious people; (b) public support
of the formal and informal leadership; (c) increased reporting of
cases of sexual assault; (d) agreement of victims, their families,
and assailants to receive professional therapy; and (e) reduction of
the number of victims.

vi. Place
In correspondence with the general strategy, it was decided to employ
two approaches to the place of the social marketing activity. The
first was to convey messages at central locations—synagogues and
schools—in order to imbue the activity with a religious and
educational character. The second was reaching out, in family homes
and small groups. The aims were to enable discussion of the subject
according to the special needs of each group, to facilitate
development of a dialogue, and to allow direct countering of messages
that might emerge from the competing group.

vii. Price
The team came to the conclusion that the most significant price the
members of the community (of different groups) were liable to pay for
adopting the ideas and expected behavior patterns was the risk of
a "mark of shame." Specifically, they were concerned that the "stain"
of being a victim of sexual abuse would make it difficult to find a
marriage partner, and that those reported and treated were liable to
jeopardize their status in the community and risk ostracism, as well
as the image of the community as a whole. Therefore, in addition to
creating a communication network that supported treatment, the
marketing team also undertook to watch and protect those who "broke
the silence."

viii. Means of promotion
The team decided to focus on three means of promotion: public
relations, advertising, and direct communication. A decision was made
to recruit local rabbis as the central agents of public relations.
This choice was based on their status and authority as judges (a
decision pronounced by a rabbi is like a legal verdict). The team
members agreed that an open discussion in a synagogue could serve as
a very powerful basis for changing attitudes and behavior patterns in
the community. In addition, in order to reinforce the messages and
enhance their influence, they advertised the message on local
television and in newspapers. The team also recruited additional
social workers, psychologists, educational counselors, and teachers,
to enable direct discussion with members of the community, families
of victims, assailants, and other families.

c. Process and results
Attempts were made to recruit the local rabbi, with limited success.
In a meeting with him, the social workers focused on the moral
problem of silencing abuse. They suggested that failure to support
the victims could cause them further damage. Moreover, resistance to
intervention and change might be interpreted as a legitimization—or
at least acceptance—of sexual abuse.

However, the local rabbi was not totally convinced, and they tried to
solicit the assistance of an influential rabbi from outside the
neighborhood. This rabbi agreed to speak with the local clergyman,
and convinced him to address the subject in his Sabbath sermon (which
was attended regularly by most of the residents). Indeed, the local
rabbi did warn the congregation that "there are evil spirits in
community and they need to be stopped." However, his message was too
vague, falling short of a specific directive.

Realizing that this was the most they could expect from the local
rabbi, the social workers turned again to the rabbi from outside the
community, who agreed to appear before the residents himself.
Speaking to a full house, the guest rabbi used biblical texts and
religious teachings to discuss the important role of professionals in
intervening with sexual abuse. Addressing the community aspect, he
told the residents that turning a blind eye to the first incident had
resulted in a chain reaction, with additional victims. He insisted
that by religious law, such a victim was allowed to marry any woman,
and it was forbidden for the community to single such people out.
This time, the message condoning reporting and professional treatment
had been delivered clearly.

The local rabbi then joined the professional team, which began
operating more directly and intensively in the community. However, at
this stage the resistance increased as well. Employing their power
and status, the family of one of the boys persuaded neighbors and
other residents not to cooperate. Although they had some success, the
involvement of the local rabbi helped counter the family´s impact. At
the same time, the members of the professional team concentrated on
helping the families of the victims and working with the children.

The team also worked with the youth movement counselors and the
teaching staff at the school on the subject of sex education. The
local rabbi later joined this effort and spoke with the children and
teenagers about boundaries, the roles and responsibilities of the
individual and society, relations between boys and girls, and the
like.

When word reached the multidisciplinary team that rival groups were
developing in the community, the community worker took action by
working with the different local youth groups and visiting different
extracurricular activities in the community center. To elaborate and
underscore the message, she used different techniques, such as
participatory video and drama games. She also spoke with groups of
adults (women, active citizens, parents whose children were not
victims, and others), reinforcing the message that it is forbidden to
ostracize victims and their relatives or to portray them as guilty.

At the end of the intervention, several outcomes were evident:

Workers in the local welfare department indicated that the marketing
and treatment process had reduced the fear of reporting and exposure
among victims and other residents. This was expressed in a notable
rise in the number of reports, as well as a growing number of victims
and assailants receiving treatment.
The rabbi, who initially opposed exposure, joined the team and
contributed to its activity.
The argument between groups within the community regarding the need
to expose and deal with sexual assault ended. In order to establish
formal legitimacy, the residents suggested a democratic vote in a
residents´ meeting on the need for exposure. Ninety percent of the
neighborhood residents voted in favor of exposure. They also
supported treatment for the victims, the assailants, and the
community as a whole.
The victims and their families began a process of group and
individual therapy. Their status was maintained, and the victims did
not become the accused, as was initially feared.
Regarding the assailants, the community discussed the question of
whether to file a complaint with the police or treat the assailants,
most of whom were victims of sexual abuse themselves. At the time of
the research, they had not reached a conclusion. It should be noted
that before the intervention, such a discussion would never have been
held publicly.

4. Discussion
The present research corroborates earlier findings ( Alaggia, 2001,
Dadia, 2002, Farrell & Taylor, 2000, Itzhaky & York, 2001, Smith,
1994 ) that in many cases of sexual assault an informal community
network emerges that supports silencing the issue and preventing
reports and professional treatment. Moreover, the opponents of
reporting and treatment often use cultural or religious codes in
order to convey messages in favor of silence. Therefore, in order to
encourage the victims, their families, and the community as a whole
to report and deal with sexual abuse, a fitting community strategy
was needed that would concentrate on changing the attitudes that
hindered reporting. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to
investigate whether an intervention plan based on the social
marketing approach and focused on changing attitudes and behavior
patterns of multiple community groups ( Andreasen, 1995, Kotler &
Roberto, 1989, Rothschild, 2000 ) would succeed in increasing the
patterns of reporting and treatment of cases of sexual abuse.

The research findings show that the resistance to reporting and
treatment by the majority of the community was linked to obedience
and "placation," that is, an effort to avoid social pressure and
stigmatization by refraining from breaking community rules and norms.
Sometimes, the resistance was associated with leaders with religious
authority. However, the resistance to reporting and treatment was not
usually based on a moral notion that was fully integrated in the
personal value system of the members of the community. One of the
prominent findings in the study of this community was that different
groups, victims and others, vacillated between silence and exposure
regarding the assault, and they supported silence (actively or
passively) for external motives.

Implementation of the marketing approach helped empower the members
of the community. Through the marketing approach, the children who
were attacked and their families increased their critical awareness
of the sources of their oppression. They refused to accept the guilt
cast upon them, adopted an approach integrated with their personal
value system, and took action to report and to seek or accept
treatment as part of their internalization of the message and inner
control, without placating or identifying with external factors.

In the first stages of implementation of the marketing approach, an
external object of identification—the rabbi—was used. However, in
time, after personal discussions with the social workers,
psychologists, and educators, most of the members of the community
took action to report and supported treatment independently, out of
recognition of the importance of responding to personal needs. The
research findings, then, support adoption of the social marketing
approach in dealing with cases where sexual abuse of children is
silenced. In the view of the authors, the advantages of the social
marketing approach revealed in this study may serve as a basis for
practice and research regarding additional social issues, when it is
necessary to change a harmful behavior pattern in the face of
community organization characterized by a conspiracy of silence.
Examples of such issues are domestic violence, violence in the
community and the school, and drug or alcohol abuse among adults or
children.

The experience in this case study highlights several aspects of the
marketing approach that may be particularly beneficial when
incorporated in community programs for dealing with sexual abuse.

a. Interdisciplinary teamwork and resident participation
The application of social marketing, a relatively new approach in
dealing professionally with sexual assault, may give rise to new
ethical dilemmas. The central issue is related to the goal of social
marketing methods and techniques, namely, to generate change in
attitudes and behavior. In particular, the question is, who should
determine the desired attitudes and behaviors—experts in social
marketing, professionals, or members and representatives of the
community?

For both ethical and practical reasons, all these parties should be
involved in setting the goals for such a process. In order to ensure
resident participation, the authors suggest that interdisciplinary
teams of local care providers work together with key members of the
community. Consideration of local codes and norms is essential in any
effort to generate a grassroots process of change, as in the case
described.

While professionals from outside the community may contribute
knowledge and skill for applying the social marketing approach, the
inclusion of professionals from the community, who are familiar with
the local culture, is essential. However, the inclusion of lay
citizens as team members in the early stages of forming the team must
be considered with due caution, in light of potential resistance from
different groups in the community. Nevertheless, a program that
relies upon an in-depth study of the needs and desires of the clients
and the participation of community representatives as early as
possible helps empower community members and facilitates efforts to
recruit support for the program.

b. Customizing the intervention program for different groups
The findings indicate that intervention regarding the issue of
silencing requires a differential approach, corresponding to
different groups, particularly the supporters of silence, the
undecided, and the apathetic. Understanding the different needs and
interests of each group, as well as the opposing and supporting
attitudes, and deciding on a segmentation strategy contributed
substantially to preparation of a program tailored to each group.
Indeed, the non-differentiation segmentation was found useful for
addressing the community as whole, while differentiation segmentation
was necessary to reach specific groups. This combination ensured
comprehensive distribution of the messages. A community program that
aspires to economize on resources and provide a uniform answer for
all groups, without consideration of the different interests of each,
is liable to miss the mark.

c. Recognition of price
The research findings suggest that change in patterns is strongly
linked to the price that the community members expect to pay for the
change. In this case, the price of giving up silence was not
monetary, but was related to investment of time and effort and,
particularly, the risk to each group of disgrace or ostracism. The
community members had an alternative to the proposed change: they
could have continued their passive approach and refrained from
exposing the issue, without taking risks. Therefore, an effective
marketing program must take into account not only the goal of
increasing patterns of reporting and treatment, but—and perhaps
mainly—how to relieve the members of the community from the heavy
costs involved in the transition to a new behavior pattern (in our
example, by legitimizing the patterns of reporting and treatment).

d. Facing competition
The findings also indicate that in order to reduce the price of
change, the social marketing system must consider competing forces.
The success of the intervention described here can be attributed
largely to the combination of direct mass dissemination of the
messages with reaching out and personal discussions. Direct
presentation (from the rabbi´s pulpit and in the local press) imbued
the messages advocating reporting and treatment with legitimacy,
authority, and power. The reaching out and personal conversations
with different groups in the community made it possible to learn
about specific needs and interests and, in the course of the
dialogue, to respond accordingly.

This approach had a clear advantage over the "competition." While the
silencing campaign was, by nature, conducted discretely and almost
exclusively in informal systems, the social marketing system worked
in this arena as well as developing open, legitimate channels. It can
be argued that this combination was critical to the success of the
community program. The simultaneous use of both informal and formal
channels made it possible to remove the threat felt by the members of
the community, and at the same time to project a new message.

e. Gradual transition
Another contribution of the social marketing approach that is
demonstrated by this case is that it generates a gradual process of
change. Marketing campaigns begin by arousing interest in the
proposed alternative (here, the idea of reporting and treatment
instead of silencing). When members of the community consider the new
behavior patterns suggested to them, the marketing campaign turns to
clarifying the meaning of the change and highlighting its advantages
(for instance, by supporting and encouraging those that report and
seek treatment). However, particularly in the initial stages of the
campaign, there may be apprehension, deliberations, and even
resistance in the target population. Therefore, it is necessary to
maintain constant encouragement and support, so that the pattern of
reporting and treatment is assimilated and adopted consistently.


----------------------------------------------------------------------
----------

References
Alaggia, R., "Cultural and religious influences in maternal response
to intrafamilial child sexual abuse: Charting new territory for
research and treatment", Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Volume: 10,
Issue: 2 (2001), pp. 41-60

Andreasen, Andreasen, A. (1995). Marketing for social change. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publication.

Andreasen, Andreasen, A. (2001). Ethics in social marketing.
Georgetown University Press.

Barton, W.H., Watkins M., Jajoura R., "Youths and communities: Toward
comprehensive strategies for youth development", Social Work, Volume:
42, (1997), pp. 483-493

Bernard, C., "Giving voice to experiences: Parental maltreatment of
Black children in the context of societal racism", Child and Family
Social Work, Volume: 7, Issue: 4 (2002), pp. 239-252

Black, D.R., Blue C.L., Coster D.C., Chrysler L.M., "Corporate social
marketing: Message design to recruit program participants", American
Journal of Health Behavior, Volume: 26, Issue: 3 (2002), pp. 188-199

Boehm, A., "Planning for community crisis: A marketing approach",
Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, Volume: 25, Issue: 4 (1998),
pp. 19-39

Dadia, Dadia, M. (2002). Immediate and postponed disclosure in sexual
assault victims. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bar Ilan
University, Ramat Gan.

Donalek, J., "First incest disclosure", Issues in Mental Health
Nursing, Volume: 22, Issue: 6 (2001), pp. 573-591

Donovan, R.J., Paterson D., Francas M., "Targeting male perpetrators
of intimate partner violence: Western Australia´s "freedom from fear"
campaign", Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume: 5, Issue: 3 (1999),
pp. 127-142

Farrell, D., Taylor M., "Silenced by God—An examination of unique
characteristics within sexual abuse by clergy", Counseling Psychology
Review, Volume: 15, Issue: 1 (2000), pp. 22-31

Feiring, C., Taska L., Lewis M., "Adjustment following sexual abuse
discovery: The role of shame and attributional style", Developmental
Psychology, Volume: 38, Issue: 1 (2002), pp. 79-92 Bibliographic Page
Full text

Fine, Fine, S. H. (1992). Marketing for the public sector: Promoting
the causes of public and nonprofit agencies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Frederiksen, Frederiksen, L. W. (1984). Marketing health behavior:
Principles, techniques, and applications. New York: Plenum Publishers.

Ghetti, S., Weede-Alexander K., Goodman G., "Legal involvement in
child sexual abuse cases: Consequences and interventions",
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume: 25, Issue: 3
(2002), pp. 235-251 Bibliographic Page Full text

Green, L., "Analyzing the sexual abuse of children by workers in
residential care homes: Characteristics, dynamics and contributory
factors", Journal of Sexual Aggression, Volume: 7, Issue: 2 (2001),
pp. 5-24

Harvey, Harvey, P. D. (1999). Let every child be wanted: How social
marketing is revolutionizing contraceptive use around the world.
Auburn House.

Hoult, J., "Silencing the victim: The politics of discrediting child
abuse survivors", Ethics and Behavior, Volume: 8, Issue: 2 (1998),
pp. 125-140

Itzhaky, H., York A., "Child sexual abuse and incest: Community-based
intervention", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 25, (2001), pp. 959-972
Bibliographic Page Full text

Kellogg, N., Hoffman T., "Child sexual revictimization by multiple
perpetrators", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 21, (1997), pp. 953-964
Bibliographic Page Full text

Kotler, Kotler, P., & Roberto, E. L. (1989). Social marketing:
Strategies for changing public behavior. New York: The Free Press,
Macmillan, Inc.

McKenzie-Mohr, D., "Promoting sustainable behavior: An introduction
to community based social marketing", Journal of Social Issues,
Volume: 56, Issue: 3 (2000), pp. 543-554

Miller, Miller, A. (1991). Breaking down the wall of silence: The
liberating experience of facing painful truth. New York: Dutton.

Muller, R.T., Goh H.H., Lemieux K.E., Fish S., "The social supports
of high-risk, formerly maltreated adults", Canadian Journal of
Behavioural Science, Volume: 32, Issue: 1 (2000), pp. 1-5
Bibliographic Page Full text

Mulroy, E.A., Shay S., "Nonprofit organizations and innovation: A
model of neighborhood-based collaboration to prevent child
maltreatment", Social Work, Volume: 42, (1997), pp. 515-524

Neuman, Neuman, W. L. (1994). Social research methods. MA: Allyn and
Bacon.

Onyskiw, J., Harrison M., Spady D., McConnan L., "Formative
evaluation of a collaborative community-based child abuse prevention
project", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 23, Issue: 11 (1999), pp.
1069-1081 Bibliographic Page Full text

Polkinghorne, Polkinghorne, D. E. (1989). Phenomenological research
methods. In R. S. Valle & S. Halling (Eds.), Existential-
phenomenological perspectives in psychology (pp. 41–60). New York:
Plenum Press.

Ronel, N., Humphreys K., "World views transformations of narcotics
anonymous members in Israel", International Journal of Self-Help and
Self-Care, Volume: 1, Issue: 1 (1999), pp. 101-127

Roseler, T.A., Wind W.T., "Telling the secret: Adult women describe
their disclosure of incest", Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
Volume: 9, Issue: 3 (1994), pp. 327-338

Rothschild, M.L., "Carrots, sticks and promises: A conceptual
framework for management of public health and social issue
behaviors", Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume: 6, Issue: 4 (2000),
pp. 88-111

Sargeant, Sargeant, A. (1999). Marketing management for nonprofit
organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Slater, M.D., Kelly K., Edwards R., "Integrating social marketing,
community readiness and media advocacy in community-based prevention
efforts", Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume: 6, Issue: 3 (2000), pp.
125-135

Smith, D.W., Letourneau E.J., Saunders B.E., Kilpatrick D.G., Resnick
H.S., Best C.L., "Delay in disclosure of childhood rape: Results from
a national survey", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 24, Issue: 2
(2000), pp. 273-287 Bibliographic Page Full text

Smith, L.M., "Lifting the veil of secrecy: Mandatory child abuse
reporting statutes may encourage the Catholic Church to report
priests who molest children", Law and Psychology Review, Volume: 18,
(1994), pp. 409-421

Ulman, S., "Correlates and consequences of adult sexual assault
disclosure", Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Volume: 11, (1996),
pp. 554-571

Williams, S., Wright D., Freeman N.H., "Inhibiting children´s memory
of an interactive event: The effectiveness of a cover-up", Applied
Cognitive Psychology, Volume: 16, Issue: 6 (2002), pp. 651-664
Bibliographic Page Full text

 
At 7:32 AM, Blogger jewishwhistleblower said...

(continued)
c. Process and results
Attempts were made to recruit the local rabbi, with limited success.
In a meeting with him, the social workers focused on the moral
problem of silencing abuse. They suggested that failure to support
the victims could cause them further damage. Moreover, resistance to
intervention and change might be interpreted as a legitimization—or
at least acceptance—of sexual abuse.

However, the local rabbi was not totally convinced, and they tried to
solicit the assistance of an influential rabbi from outside the
neighborhood. This rabbi agreed to speak with the local clergyman,
and convinced him to address the subject in his Sabbath sermon (which
was attended regularly by most of the residents). Indeed, the local
rabbi did warn the congregation that "there are evil spirits in
community and they need to be stopped." However, his message was too
vague, falling short of a specific directive.

Realizing that this was the most they could expect from the local
rabbi, the social workers turned again to the rabbi from outside the
community, who agreed to appear before the residents himself.
Speaking to a full house, the guest rabbi used biblical texts and
religious teachings to discuss the important role of professionals in
intervening with sexual abuse. Addressing the community aspect, he
told the residents that turning a blind eye to the first incident had
resulted in a chain reaction, with additional victims. He insisted
that by religious law, such a victim was allowed to marry any woman,
and it was forbidden for the community to single such people out.
This time, the message condoning reporting and professional treatment
had been delivered clearly.

The local rabbi then joined the professional team, which began
operating more directly and intensively in the community. However, at
this stage the resistance increased as well. Employing their power
and status, the family of one of the boys persuaded neighbors and
other residents not to cooperate. Although they had some success, the
involvement of the local rabbi helped counter the family´s impact. At
the same time, the members of the professional team concentrated on
helping the families of the victims and working with the children.

The team also worked with the youth movement counselors and the
teaching staff at the school on the subject of sex education. The
local rabbi later joined this effort and spoke with the children and
teenagers about boundaries, the roles and responsibilities of the
individual and society, relations between boys and girls, and the
like.

When word reached the multidisciplinary team that rival groups were
developing in the community, the community worker took action by
working with the different local youth groups and visiting different
extracurricular activities in the community center. To elaborate and
underscore the message, she used different techniques, such as
participatory video and drama games. She also spoke with groups of
adults (women, active citizens, parents whose children were not
victims, and others), reinforcing the message that it is forbidden to
ostracize victims and their relatives or to portray them as guilty.

At the end of the intervention, several outcomes were evident:

Workers in the local welfare department indicated that the marketing
and treatment process had reduced the fear of reporting and exposure
among victims and other residents. This was expressed in a notable
rise in the number of reports, as well as a growing number of victims
and assailants receiving treatment.
The rabbi, who initially opposed exposure, joined the team and
contributed to its activity.
The argument between groups within the community regarding the need
to expose and deal with sexual assault ended. In order to establish
formal legitimacy, the residents suggested a democratic vote in a
residents´ meeting on the need for exposure. Ninety percent of the
neighborhood residents voted in favor of exposure. They also
supported treatment for the victims, the assailants, and the
community as a whole.
The victims and their families began a process of group and
individual therapy. Their status was maintained, and the victims did
not become the accused, as was initially feared.
Regarding the assailants, the community discussed the question of
whether to file a complaint with the police or treat the assailants,
most of whom were victims of sexual abuse themselves. At the time of
the research, they had not reached a conclusion. It should be noted
that before the intervention, such a discussion would never have been
held publicly.

4. Discussion
The present research corroborates earlier findings ( Alaggia, 2001,
Dadia, 2002, Farrell & Taylor, 2000, Itzhaky & York, 2001, Smith,
1994 ) that in many cases of sexual assault an informal community
network emerges that supports silencing the issue and preventing
reports and professional treatment. Moreover, the opponents of
reporting and treatment often use cultural or religious codes in
order to convey messages in favor of silence. Therefore, in order to
encourage the victims, their families, and the community as a whole
to report and deal with sexual abuse, a fitting community strategy
was needed that would concentrate on changing the attitudes that
hindered reporting. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to
investigate whether an intervention plan based on the social
marketing approach and focused on changing attitudes and behavior
patterns of multiple community groups ( Andreasen, 1995, Kotler &
Roberto, 1989, Rothschild, 2000 ) would succeed in increasing the
patterns of reporting and treatment of cases of sexual abuse.

The research findings show that the resistance to reporting and
treatment by the majority of the community was linked to obedience
and "placation," that is, an effort to avoid social pressure and
stigmatization by refraining from breaking community rules and norms.
Sometimes, the resistance was associated with leaders with religious
authority. However, the resistance to reporting and treatment was not
usually based on a moral notion that was fully integrated in the
personal value system of the members of the community. One of the
prominent findings in the study of this community was that different
groups, victims and others, vacillated between silence and exposure
regarding the assault, and they supported silence (actively or
passively) for external motives.

Implementation of the marketing approach helped empower the members
of the community. Through the marketing approach, the children who
were attacked and their families increased their critical awareness
of the sources of their oppression. They refused to accept the guilt
cast upon them, adopted an approach integrated with their personal
value system, and took action to report and to seek or accept
treatment as part of their internalization of the message and inner
control, without placating or identifying with external factors.

In the first stages of implementation of the marketing approach, an
external object of identification—the rabbi—was used. However, in
time, after personal discussions with the social workers,
psychologists, and educators, most of the members of the community
took action to report and supported treatment independently, out of
recognition of the importance of responding to personal needs. The
research findings, then, support adoption of the social marketing
approach in dealing with cases where sexual abuse of children is
silenced. In the view of the authors, the advantages of the social
marketing approach revealed in this study may serve as a basis for
practice and research regarding additional social issues, when it is
necessary to change a harmful behavior pattern in the face of
community organization characterized by a conspiracy of silence.
Examples of such issues are domestic violence, violence in the
community and the school, and drug or alcohol abuse among adults or
children.

The experience in this case study highlights several aspects of the
marketing approach that may be particularly beneficial when
incorporated in community programs for dealing with sexual abuse.

a. Interdisciplinary teamwork and resident participation
The application of social marketing, a relatively new approach in
dealing professionally with sexual assault, may give rise to new
ethical dilemmas. The central issue is related to the goal of social
marketing methods and techniques, namely, to generate change in
attitudes and behavior. In particular, the question is, who should
determine the desired attitudes and behaviors—experts in social
marketing, professionals, or members and representatives of the
community?

For both ethical and practical reasons, all these parties should be
involved in setting the goals for such a process. In order to ensure
resident participation, the authors suggest that interdisciplinary
teams of local care providers work together with key members of the
community. Consideration of local codes and norms is essential in any
effort to generate a grassroots process of change, as in the case
described.

While professionals from outside the community may contribute
knowledge and skill for applying the social marketing approach, the
inclusion of professionals from the community, who are familiar with
the local culture, is essential. However, the inclusion of lay
citizens as team members in the early stages of forming the team must
be considered with due caution, in light of potential resistance from
different groups in the community. Nevertheless, a program that
relies upon an in-depth study of the needs and desires of the clients
and the participation of community representatives as early as
possible helps empower community members and facilitates efforts to
recruit support for the program.

b. Customizing the intervention program for different groups
The findings indicate that intervention regarding the issue of
silencing requires a differential approach, corresponding to
different groups, particularly the supporters of silence, the
undecided, and the apathetic. Understanding the different needs and
interests of each group, as well as the opposing and supporting
attitudes, and deciding on a segmentation strategy contributed
substantially to preparation of a program tailored to each group.
Indeed, the non-differentiation segmentation was found useful for
addressing the community as whole, while differentiation segmentation
was necessary to reach specific groups. This combination ensured
comprehensive distribution of the messages. A community program that
aspires to economize on resources and provide a uniform answer for
all groups, without consideration of the different interests of each,
is liable to miss the mark.

c. Recognition of price
The research findings suggest that change in patterns is strongly
linked to the price that the community members expect to pay for the
change. In this case, the price of giving up silence was not
monetary, but was related to investment of time and effort and,
particularly, the risk to each group of disgrace or ostracism. The
community members had an alternative to the proposed change: they
could have continued their passive approach and refrained from
exposing the issue, without taking risks. Therefore, an effective
marketing program must take into account not only the goal of
increasing patterns of reporting and treatment, but—and perhaps
mainly—how to relieve the members of the community from the heavy
costs involved in the transition to a new behavior pattern (in our
example, by legitimizing the patterns of reporting and treatment).

d. Facing competition
The findings also indicate that in order to reduce the price of
change, the social marketing system must consider competing forces.
The success of the intervention described here can be attributed
largely to the combination of direct mass dissemination of the
messages with reaching out and personal discussions. Direct
presentation (from the rabbi´s pulpit and in the local press) imbued
the messages advocating reporting and treatment with legitimacy,
authority, and power. The reaching out and personal conversations
with different groups in the community made it possible to learn
about specific needs and interests and, in the course of the
dialogue, to respond accordingly.

This approach had a clear advantage over the "competition." While the
silencing campaign was, by nature, conducted discretely and almost
exclusively in informal systems, the social marketing system worked
in this arena as well as developing open, legitimate channels. It can
be argued that this combination was critical to the success of the
community program. The simultaneous use of both informal and formal
channels made it possible to remove the threat felt by the members of
the community, and at the same time to project a new message.

e. Gradual transition
Another contribution of the social marketing approach that is
demonstrated by this case is that it generates a gradual process of
change. Marketing campaigns begin by arousing interest in the
proposed alternative (here, the idea of reporting and treatment
instead of silencing). When members of the community consider the new
behavior patterns suggested to them, the marketing campaign turns to
clarifying the meaning of the change and highlighting its advantages
(for instance, by supporting and encouraging those that report and
seek treatment). However, particularly in the initial stages of the
campaign, there may be apprehension, deliberations, and even
resistance in the target population. Therefore, it is necessary to
maintain constant encouragement and support, so that the pattern of
reporting and treatment is assimilated and adopted consistently.


----------------------------------------------------------------------
----------

References
Alaggia, R., "Cultural and religious influences in maternal response
to intrafamilial child sexual abuse: Charting new territory for
research and treatment", Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Volume: 10,
Issue: 2 (2001), pp. 41-60

Andreasen, Andreasen, A. (1995). Marketing for social change. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publication.

Andreasen, Andreasen, A. (2001). Ethics in social marketing.
Georgetown University Press.

Barton, W.H., Watkins M., Jajoura R., "Youths and communities: Toward
comprehensive strategies for youth development", Social Work, Volume:
42, (1997), pp. 483-493

Bernard, C., "Giving voice to experiences: Parental maltreatment of
Black children in the context of societal racism", Child and Family
Social Work, Volume: 7, Issue: 4 (2002), pp. 239-252

Black, D.R., Blue C.L., Coster D.C., Chrysler L.M., "Corporate social
marketing: Message design to recruit program participants", American
Journal of Health Behavior, Volume: 26, Issue: 3 (2002), pp. 188-199

Boehm, A., "Planning for community crisis: A marketing approach",
Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, Volume: 25, Issue: 4 (1998),
pp. 19-39

Dadia, Dadia, M. (2002). Immediate and postponed disclosure in sexual
assault victims. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bar Ilan
University, Ramat Gan.

Donalek, J., "First incest disclosure", Issues in Mental Health
Nursing, Volume: 22, Issue: 6 (2001), pp. 573-591

Donovan, R.J., Paterson D., Francas M., "Targeting male perpetrators
of intimate partner violence: Western Australia´s "freedom from fear"
campaign", Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume: 5, Issue: 3 (1999),
pp. 127-142

Farrell, D., Taylor M., "Silenced by God—An examination of unique
characteristics within sexual abuse by clergy", Counseling Psychology
Review, Volume: 15, Issue: 1 (2000), pp. 22-31

Feiring, C., Taska L., Lewis M., "Adjustment following sexual abuse
discovery: The role of shame and attributional style", Developmental
Psychology, Volume: 38, Issue: 1 (2002), pp. 79-92 Bibliographic Page
Full text

Fine, Fine, S. H. (1992). Marketing for the public sector: Promoting
the causes of public and nonprofit agencies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Frederiksen, Frederiksen, L. W. (1984). Marketing health behavior:
Principles, techniques, and applications. New York: Plenum Publishers.

Ghetti, S., Weede-Alexander K., Goodman G., "Legal involvement in
child sexual abuse cases: Consequences and interventions",
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume: 25, Issue: 3
(2002), pp. 235-251 Bibliographic Page Full text

Green, L., "Analyzing the sexual abuse of children by workers in
residential care homes: Characteristics, dynamics and contributory
factors", Journal of Sexual Aggression, Volume: 7, Issue: 2 (2001),
pp. 5-24

Harvey, Harvey, P. D. (1999). Let every child be wanted: How social
marketing is revolutionizing contraceptive use around the world.
Auburn House.

Hoult, J., "Silencing the victim: The politics of discrediting child
abuse survivors", Ethics and Behavior, Volume: 8, Issue: 2 (1998),
pp. 125-140

Itzhaky, H., York A., "Child sexual abuse and incest: Community-based
intervention", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 25, (2001), pp. 959-972
Bibliographic Page Full text

Kellogg, N., Hoffman T., "Child sexual revictimization by multiple
perpetrators", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 21, (1997), pp. 953-964
Bibliographic Page Full text

Kotler, Kotler, P., & Roberto, E. L. (1989). Social marketing:
Strategies for changing public behavior. New York: The Free Press,
Macmillan, Inc.

McKenzie-Mohr, D., "Promoting sustainable behavior: An introduction
to community based social marketing", Journal of Social Issues,
Volume: 56, Issue: 3 (2000), pp. 543-554

Miller, Miller, A. (1991). Breaking down the wall of silence: The
liberating experience of facing painful truth. New York: Dutton.

Muller, R.T., Goh H.H., Lemieux K.E., Fish S., "The social supports
of high-risk, formerly maltreated adults", Canadian Journal of
Behavioural Science, Volume: 32, Issue: 1 (2000), pp. 1-5
Bibliographic Page Full text

Mulroy, E.A., Shay S., "Nonprofit organizations and innovation: A
model of neighborhood-based collaboration to prevent child
maltreatment", Social Work, Volume: 42, (1997), pp. 515-524

Neuman, Neuman, W. L. (1994). Social research methods. MA: Allyn and
Bacon.

Onyskiw, J., Harrison M., Spady D., McConnan L., "Formative
evaluation of a collaborative community-based child abuse prevention
project", Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume: 23, Issue: 11 (1999), pp.
1069-1081 Bibliographic Page Full text

Polkinghorne, Polkinghorne, D. E. (1989). Phenomenological research
methods. In R. S. Valle & S. Halling (Eds.), Existential-
phenomenological perspectives in psychology (pp. 41–60). New York:
Plenum Press.

Ronel, N., Humphreys K., "World views transformations of narcotics
anonymous members in Israel", International Journal of Self-Help and
Self-Care, Volume: 1, Issue: 1 (1999), pp. 101-127

Roseler, T.A., Wind W.T., "Telling the secret: Adult women describe
their disclosure of incest", Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
Volume: 9, Issue: 3 (1994), pp. 327-338

Rothschild, M.L., "Carrots, sticks and promises: A conceptual
framework for management of public health and social issue
behaviors", Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume: 6, Issue: 4 (2000),
pp. 88-111

Sargeant, Sargeant, A. (1999). Marketing management for nonprofit
organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Slater, M.D., Kelly K., Edwards R., "Integrating social marketing,
community readiness and media advocacy in community-based prevention
efforts", Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume: 6, Issue: 3 (2000), pp.
125-135

Smith, D.W., Letourneau E.J., Saunders B.E., Kilpatrick D.G., Resnick
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At 7:34 AM, Blogger jewishwhistleblower said...

Ignore contiuation 2nd comment, if you can see entire article in 1st comment.

 
At 7:04 AM, Blogger Avi said...

The researchers seem to have underestimated the importance of the outside Rabbi's support. It is doubtful that their methodology was really the critical success factor, instead it was the willingness of one Rabbi to have the courage to stand up and tell the truth. Hmmm maybe this is the real lesson. We just don't have enough orthodox Jewish leaders who are willing to speak the truth and stand up for what is right. Instead we are mired in the dribble of ethnocentric thinking... Overall, interesting study though.. I would have loved to have listened in as a couple of social workers tried to reason with the Rabbi :-) Avi...

 

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